Posted by 

Bonsai Wikipedia. Bonsai at the Omiya Bonsai Art Museum. Bonsai at the National Bonsai Penjing Museum at the United States National Arboretum. Bonsai, tray planting  pronunciation helpinfo1 is a Japanese art form using trees grown in containers. Bonsai Techniques 1 Pdf' title='Bonsai Techniques 1 Pdf' />Similar practices exist in other cultures, including the Chinese tradition of penzai or penjing from which the art originated, and the miniature living landscapes of Vietnamese hn non b. The Japanese tradition dates back over a thousand years. Bonsai is a Japanese pronunciation of the earlier Chinese term penzai. The word bonsai is often used in English as an umbrella term for all miniature trees in containers or pots. The purposes of bonsai are primarily contemplation for the viewer, and the pleasant exercise of effort and ingenuity for the grower. By contrast with other plant cultivation practices, bonsai is not intended for production of food or for medicine. Instead, bonsai practice focuses on long term cultivation and shaping of one or more small trees growing in a container. A bonsai is created beginning with a specimen of source material. This may be a cutting, seedling, or small tree of a species suitable for bonsai development. Bonsai can be created from nearly any perennial woody stemmed tree or shrub species3 that produces true branches and can be cultivated to remain small through pot confinement with crown and root pruning. Some species are popular as bonsai material because they have characteristics, such as small leaves or needles, that make them appropriate for the compact visual scope of bonsai. The source specimen is shaped to be relatively small and to meet the aesthetic standards of bonsai. When the candidate bonsai nears its planned final size it is planted in a display pot, usually one designed for bonsai display in one of a few accepted shapes and proportions. I/61I5NQR3WIL.jpg' alt='Bonsai Techniques 1 Pdf' title='Bonsai Techniques 1 Pdf' />From that point forward, its growth is restricted by the pot environment. Throughout the year, the bonsai is shaped to limit growth, redistribute foliar vigor to areas requiring further development, and meet the artists detailed design. The practice of bonsai is sometimes confused with dwarfing, but dwarfing generally refers to research, discovery, or creation of plant cultivars that are permanent, genetic miniatures of existing species. Bonsai does not require genetically dwarfed trees, but rather depends on growing small trees from regular stock and seeds. Bonsai uses cultivation techniques like pruning, root reduction, potting, defoliation, and grafting to produce small trees that mimic the shape and style of mature, full size trees. HistoryeditEarly versionseditThe Japanese art of bonsai originated from the Chinese practice of penjing. From the 6th century onward, Imperial embassy personnel and Buddhist students from Japan visited and returned from mainland China. They brought back many Chinese ideas and goods, including container plantings. Over time, these container plantings began to appear in Japanese writings and representative art. In the medieval period, recognizable bonsai were portrayed in handscroll paintings like the Ippen shonin eden 1. The 1. 19. 5 scroll. Saigyo Monogatari Emaki was the earliest known to depict dwarfed potted trees in Japan. Wooden tray and dish like pots with dwarf landscapes on modern looking wooden shelves also appear in the 1. Kasuga gongen genki scroll. In 1. 35. 1, dwarf trees displayed on short poles were portrayed in the Boki Ekotoba scroll. Several other scrolls and paintings also included depictions of these kinds of trees. A close relationship between Japans Zen Buddhism and the potted trees began to shape bonsai reputation and esthetics. Vampire Knight Season 3 Episode 1 English Dub Fullmetal Alchemist on this page. In this period, Chinese Chan pronounced Zen in Japanese Buddhist monks taught at Japans monasteries. One of the monks activities was to introduce political leaders to various arts of miniature landscapes as admirable accomplishments for men of taste and learning. Potted landscape arrangements up to this period included miniature figurines after the Chinese fashion. Japanese artists eventually adopted a simpler style for bonsai, increasing focus on the tree by removing miniatures and other decorations, and using smaller, plainer pots. Hachi no kiedit. Chinese Penjing specimen with decorated and relatively deep bowl style container. Around the 1. 4th century, the term for dwarf potted trees was the bowls tree hachi no ki. This indicated use of a fairly deep pot, rather than the shallow pot denoted by the eventual term bonsai. Hachi no Ki The Potted Trees is also the title of a Noh play by Zeami Motokiyo 1. The monk is a disguised official who later rewards the samurai for his actions. In later centuries, woodblock prints by several artists depicted this popular drama. There was even a fabric design of the same name. Through these and other popular media, bonsai became known to a broad Japanese population. Bonsai cultivation reached a high level of expertise in this period. Bonsai dating to the 1. One of the oldest known living bonsai trees, considered one of the National Treasures of Japan, can be seen in the Tokyo Imperial Palace collection. A five needle pine Pinus pentaphylla var. Sandai Shogun No Matsu is documented as having been cared for by Tokugawa Iemitsu. The tree is thought to be at least 5. Saikoi, 1 de abril de 2010 s 1100 viva Rodrigo, quando tiveres o livro el olivo en bonsai,a 2a edio,j sabesdiz alguma coisa que eu ando a ver. Un bonsa ou plus rarement bonza 1 du japonais est un arbre nain ou arbuste, cultiv dans un pot, dont la forme voque celle des arbres matures dans. By the end of the 1. Japan was becoming widespread and began to interest the general public. In the Tenmei era 1. Kyoto. Connoisseurs from five provinces and neighboring areas would bring one or two plants each to the show in order to submit them to visitors for ranking. Classical periodeditIn Japan after 1. In Itami, Hygo near Osaka, Japanese scholars of Chinese arts gathered in the early 1. Many terms and concepts adopted by this group were derived from Kai shi en Gaden, the Japanese version of Jieziyuan Huazhuan Manual of the Mustard Seed Garden. The Japanese version of potted trees, which had been previously called bunjin ueki, bunjin hachiue, or other terms, were renamed bonsai the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese term penzai. This word connoted a shallow container, not a deeper bowl style. The term bonsai, however, would not become broadly used in describing Japans dwarf potted trees for nearly a century. The popularity of bonsai began to grow outside the limited scope of scholars and the nobility. On October 1. 3, 1. Meiji Emperor moved to his new capital in Tokyo. Bonsai were displayed both inside and outside Meiji Palace, and those placed in the grand setting of the Imperial Palace had to be Giant Bonsai, large enough to fill the grand space. The Meiji Emperor encouraged interest in bonsai, which broadened its importance and appeal to his governments professional staff. New books, magazines, and public exhibitions made bonsai more accessible to the Japanese populace. An Artistic Bonsai Concours was held in Tokyo in 1. This event demonstrated a new tendency to see bonsai as an independent art form. In 1. 90. 3, the Tokyo association Jurakukai held showings of bonsai and ikebana at two Japanese style restaurants. Three years later, Bonsai Gaho 1. It was followed by Toyo Engei and Hana in 1. The initial issue of Bonsai magazine was published in 1. Norio Kobayashi 1. Modern bonsai tools left to right leaf trimmer rake with spatula root hook coir brush concave cutter knob cutter wire cutter small, medium and large shears. Socit de bonsa et de penjing de Montral. Bienvenue sur le site de la Socit de bonsa et de penjing de Montral, un organisme but non lucratif ddi la promotion de lart du bonsa. Tout au long de lanne, la SBPM propose ses membres des activits dapprentissage cours, ateliers, confrences, ainsi que des activits sociales, en plus dorganiser une exposition annuelle gratuite et ouverte au public, o les membres peuvent exposer leurs uvres. Plus dinfos DEVENIR MEMBREVous souhaitez devenir membre de la Socit de bonsa et de penjing de MontralConsultez notre page adhsion pour connaitre les avantages et privilges des membres et accder au formulaire dadhsion. DEVENIR MEMBREFORMATIONS, ATELIERS, STAGES CONFRENCESPour en savoir plus sur les activits dapprentissage cours, ateliers, confrences, ainsi que des activits sociales, consulter notre page activits. Pour connaitre les priodes dinscriptions aux cours, ateliers et stages, veuillez consulter notre calendrier dactivits aux pages suivantes EN PRIODE DINSCRIPTIONSouper de Nol 2. Mardi le 5 dcembre 2. Asie, 7. 06. 0 rue Sherbrooke Est, Mtl.