Tilaka Wikipedia. A Tilaka ceremony in progress to welcome the groom at a Hindu wedding. In Hinduism, the tilaka Sanskrit is a mark worn usually on the forehead, sometimes other parts of the body such as neck, hand or chest. Tilaka may be worn on a daily basis or for rites of passage or special religious occasions only, depending on regional customs. The term also refers to the Hindu ritual of marking someones forehead with a fragrant paste, such as of sandalwood or vermilion, as a welcome and expression of honor when they arrive. DescriptioneditThe tilaka is a mark created by the application of powder or paste on the forehead. Tilakas are vertical markings worn by Vaishnavites. The Vaishnava tilaka consists of a long vertical marking starting from just below the hairline to almost the end of ones nose tip, and they are also known as Urdhva Pundra. Red Hat Kickstart Post Install Script Setup'>Red Hat Kickstart Post Install Script Setup. It is intercepted in the middle by an elongated U. There may be two marks on the temples as well. This tilaka is traditionally made with sandalwood paste. The other major tilaka variant is often worn by the followers of Shiva, known by the names of Rudra tilaka and Tripundra. It consists of three horizontal bands across the forehead with a single vertical band or circle in the middle. This is traditionally done with sacred ash from fire sacrifices. This variant is the more ancient of the two and shares many common aspects with similar markings worn across the world. Shaktas, worshippers of the various forms of the Goddess Devi wear a large red dot of kumkum vermillion or red turmeric on the forehead. SignificanceeditChapter 2 of the Kalagni Rudra Upanishad, a Shaiva tradition text, explains the three lines of a Tilaka as a reminder of various triads three sacred fires, three syllables in Om, three gunas, three worlds, three types of atman self, three powers in oneself, first three Vedas, three times of extraction of the Vedic drink Soma. The first line is equated to Garhapatya the sacred fire in a household kitchen, the A syllable of Om, the Rajas guna, the earth, the external self, Kriy the power of action, the Rigveda, the morning extraction of Soma, and Maheshvara. The second streak of ash is a reminder of Dakshinagni the holy fire lighted in the South for ancestors, the sound U of Om, Sattva guna, the atmosphere, the inner self, Iccha the power of will, the Yajurveda, midday Soma extraction, and Sadashiva. The third streak is the Ahavaniya the fire used for Homa, the M syllable in Om, the Tamas guna, Svarga heaven, the Paramatman the highest self the ultimate reality of Brahman, Jnana the power of knowledge, the Samaveda, Soma extraction at dusk, and Shiva. These lines, states Antonio Rigopoulos, represent Shivas threefold power of will icchakti, knowledge jnaakti, and action kriyakti. The Tripura described in this and other Shaiva texts also symbolizes Shivas trident trila and the divine triad of Brahm, Vishnu, and Shiva. The Vasudeva Upanishad, a Vaishnava tradition text, similarly explains the significance of three vertical lines in Urdhva Pundra Tilaka to be a reminder of Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva the Vedic scriptures Rigveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda three worlds Bhu, Bhuva, Svar the three syllables of Om A, U, M three states of consciousness awake, dream sleep, deep sleep three realities Maya, Brahman and Atman the three bodies Sthula, Sukshma, and Karana. Traditionsedit. Examples of Tilaks or sect marking in British India, summarized by 1. Russell. Different Hindu traditions use different materials and shapes to make the tilaka. C1rby3H5ci0GB7xISXMLmYB_IjCR8H6KStqQqD05pA49S1B7tQ5BWN84GtBS4EyGttLr=h900' alt='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' title='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' />Saivites typically mark their Tilak using vibhuti ash in three horizontal lines across the forehead. Along with the three horizontal lines, a bindu of sandalwood paste or a dot of red kumkum in the centre completes the Tilaka tripundra. Vaishnavas apply a Tilak with vermillion, clay, sandalwood paste Chandan, or latter two mixed. They apply the material in two vertical lines, which may be connected at the bottom, forming a simple U shape, often with an additional vertical red marking in the shape of a tulsi leaf inside the U shape. Their tilaka is called the Urdhva Pundra. See also Srivaishnava Urdhva Pundra, the Srivaishnava tilaka. Ganapatya use red sandal paste rakta candana. Shaktas use kumkuma, or powdered red turmeric. They draw one vertical line or dot not to be confused with Bindi used by Indian women from different religions. Honorary tilakas Raja tilaka and Vira tilaka are usually applied as a single vertical red line. R E L A T E D. When is Upakarma in 2017 Clarification on Rig Upakarma, Yajurveda Upakarma, Sama Upakarma Rig Shukla Yajur Shravani 2017 Upakarma 2017 Rig Veda. Raja tilaka will be used while enthroning kings or inviting prominent personalities. Vira tilaka is used to anoint victors or leaders after a war or a game. Swaminarayana tilaka is U shaped in the middle of forehead along with the red dot in the middle of U known as chandlo. Cultural traditionedit. Applying Tilaka on forehead of guests to welcome, honor is also a cultural tradition in India and Nepal. Sikhs apply the tilaka as well. The Darshan Darbar devotees apply red tilaka to the forehead. This tilaka is a long red mark veritically applied. In Hinduism, the tilaka Sanskrit is a mark worn usually on the forehead, sometimes other parts of the body such as neck, hand or chest. Upanayana is the rite of passage for the start of formal education of writing, numbers, reading, Vedangas, arts and other skills. The Upanayana rite of passage was. HOME PAGE. httpswww. Here is a link that you can click to read the PDF file Chapter V Mantras and Purification in Woodroffes Book The Great. Rig Veda Upakarma procedure or proyogam is given here for 2017. Rig Veda Upaakarma or Rig Veda Avani Avittam is followed by Rig Vedi Brahmins in Tamil Nadu, Kerala. Saint Baba Budha ji applied tilaka to the first five Sikh Gurus. Jains use Tilaka to mark the forehead of Jaina images with sandalwood paste, during Puja ceremonies. Christians in India use Tilaka, both to mark special occasions and during their worship rites. Hindus use the Tilaka ceremony, as a mark of honor and welcome to guests, something special or someone special. Istockphoto Crack Internet. It may also be used, for same reason, to mark idols at the start of a Puja worship, to mark a rock or tree before it is cut or removed from its original place for artisan work, or a new piece of property. The choice of style is not mandated in Hindu texts, and it is left to the individual and the regional culture, leading to many versions. Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' title='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' />The known styles include1. Vijayshree white tilaka urdhwapundra with a white line in the middle,1. Swami Balanand of Jaipur Bendi tilaka white tilak urdhwapundra with a white round mark in the middle,1. SS0HP0djX9UKB0MCqI2IQNj46pitEH-8GaZqwHDJAzeQKM_wj_anoPAHxKd2TSEsFQ=h900' alt='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' title='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' />Swami Ramprasad Acharya of Badasthan Ayodhya and Chaturbhuji tilaka white tilak urdhwapundra with the upper portion turned 9. Narayandasji of Bihar, ascetics of Swarg Dwar of Ayodhya follow it. RfOL/bg=FFFFFF/txt=000000/border=CCCCCC/columns=9/maxflags=200/viewers=3/labels=1/' alt='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' title='Sama Veda Upakarma 2013 Pdf' />Sharma has named additional styles as, Vallabh Sampraday Tilak, Sri Tilaka of Rewasa Gaddi, Ramacharandas Tilaka, Srijiwarama ka Tilaka, Sri Janakraja Kishori Sharan Rasik Aliji ka Tilaka, Sri Rupkalajee ka Tilaka, Rupsarasji ka Tilaka, Ramasakheeji ka Tilaka, Kamanendu Mani ka Tilaka, Karunasindhuji ka Tilaka, Swaminarayana Tilaka, Nimbarka ka Tilaka and Madhwa ka Tilaka. Relationship to bindieditThe terms tilaka and bindi overlap somewhat, but are not synonymous. Among the differences A tilaka is always applied with paste or powder, whereas a bindi may be paste or jewel. A tilaka is usually applied for religious or spiritual reasons, or to honour a personage, event, or victory. A bindi can signify marriage, or be simply for decorative purposes. A bindi is worn only between the eyes, whereas a tilaka can also cover the face or other parts of the body. Tilaka can be applied to twelve parts of the body head, forehead, neck, both upper arms, both forearms, chest, both sides of the torso, stomach and shoulder. Typically the Bindi is worn only by women, whereas tilaka is worn by both men and women. Upanayana Wikipedia. Upanayana sanskara ceremony in progress at Nepal. Typically, this ritual was for 8 year olds in ancient India, but in the 1st millennium CE it became open to all ages. Upanayana IAST Upanayanam is one of the traditional saskras rites of passage that marked the acceptance of a student by a guru teacher and an individuals entrance to a school in Hinduism. The tradition is widely discussed in ancient Sanskrit texts of India and varies regionally. The sacred thread yajnopavita is received by the boy during this ceremony, that he continues wearing across his chest thereafter. The upanayana was restricted in many medieval Indian texts to the upper three of the four varnas castes of society brahmins, kshatriyas and vaishyas. However, Vedic period texts such as the Baudhyana. Grihyasutra encouraged all members of society to undergo the upanayana,even manual workers shudras. Women were encouraged to undergo upanayana in ancient India before they started Vedic studies or before their wedding. EtymologyeditUpanayana Sanskrit literally means the act of leading to or near. It is an important and widely discussed samskara in ancient Sanskrit text. The rite of passage symbolizes the leading or drawing towards the self of a child, in a school, by a teacher. It is a ceremony in which a guru teacher accepts and draws a child towards knowledge and initiates the second birth that is of the young mind and spirit. Descriptionedit. A boy during his upanayana ritual. The thin, yellow Yajnopavita thread runs from left shoulder to waist. Note the munja grass girdle around the waist. The peepal tree twig in his right hand marks his entry into the Brahmacharya stage of life. Upanayana is the rite of passage for the start of formal education of writing, numbers, reading, Vedangas, arts and other skills. The Upanayana rite of passage was also important to the teacher, as the student would therefrom begin to live in the gurukul school. Upanayana was an elaborate ceremony, that included rituals involving the family, the child and the teacher. A boy receives during this ceremony a sacred thread called Yajopaveetam that he wears. The Yajopavita ceremony announced that the child had entered into formal education. In the modern era, the Upanayana rite of passage is open to anyone at any age. The education of a student was not limited to ritual and philosophical speculations found in the Vedas and the Upanishads. They extended to many arts and crafts, which had their own, similar rites of passages. Aitareya Brahmana, Agamas and Puranas literature of Hinduism describe these as Shilpa Sastras. They extend to all practical aspects of culture, such as the sculptor, the potter, the perfumer, the wheelwright, the painter, the weaver, the architect, the dancer, and the musician. Ancient Indian texts assert that the number of the arts is unlimited, but each deploy elements of 6. The training of these began from childhood and included studies about dharma, culture, reading, writing, mathematics, geometry, colors, tools, as well as traditions trade secrets. The rites of passage during apprentice education varied in the respective guilds. Rajbali Pandey compares the Upanayana rite of passage to Baptism in Christianity where the person is born again unto spiritual knowledge, as the ceremony marked the initiation of the student for spiritual studies such as the Vedas. Age, gender and varna restrictionseditIn Hindu traditions, a human being is born at least twice once at physical birth and second at intellectual birth through teachers care. The first is marked through the Jatakarman sanskara ritual the second is marked through Upanayanam or Vidyarambha rites of passage. A sacred thread was given by the teacher during the initiation to school ceremony and was a symbolic reminder to the student of his purpose at school as well as a social marker of the student as someone who was born a second time dvija, twice born he went about collecting fire wood in forest and food donations from villages on a daily basis. Many medieval era texts discuss Upanayana in the context of three varnas caste, class Brahmins, Kshtreyas and Vaishyas. Several texts such as Sushruta Sutrasthana, however, also include Sudras entering schools and the formal education process,1. Upanayana samskara was open to everyone. The Baudhayana Grihya sutra in verses 2. Upanayana a Brahmin in spring, a Kshatriya in summer, a Vaishya in autumn, a Sudra in the rainy season or all of them in the spring. The ceremony was typically performed at age eight among the Brahmins, at age 1. Kshatriyas, and age 1. Vaishyas. 1. 8 Apastamba Gryha Sutra, in verse 1. Upanayana ceremony and start of formal education. However, Gautama Gryha Sutra and other ancient texts state that there is no age restriction and anyone of any age can undertake Upanayanam when they feel they initiate their formal studies of the Vedas. Women and UpanayanaeditIn some regions, in modern times, boys and girls undergo the tradition of Upanayana initiation when they start their formal schooling. In ancient and medieval eras, texts such as Harita Dharmasutras, Asvalayana Grhya Sutra and Yama smriti suggest women could begin Vedic studies after the Upanayana rite of passage. Girls who decided to become a student underwent the Upanayana rite of passage, at the age of 8, and thereafter were called Brahmavadini. They wore a thread or upper garment over their left shoulder. Those girls who chose not to go to a gurukul were called Sadyovadhu literally, one who marries straight. However, the Sadyovadhu, too, underwent a step during the wedding rituals, where she would complete Upanayana, and thereafter wear her upper garment saree over her left shoulder. This interim symbolic Upanayana rite of passage for a girl, before her wedding, is described in multiple texts such as the Gobhila Gryha Sutra verse 2. Dharmasutras. 2. 3Doubts about Upanayanam rite of passage in old textseditScholars2. Upanayana ceremony is likely to have been inserted into ancient texts in a more modern era. Hermann Oldenberg, for example, states that Upanayana the solemn reception of the pupil by the teacher to teach him the Veda is joined into texts of Vedic texts at places that simply do not make any contextual sense, do not match the style, and are likely to be a corruption of the ancient texts. For example, in Satapatha Brahmana, the Upanayana rite of passage text appears in the middle of a dialogue about Agnihotra after the Upanayana verse end, sage Saukeya abruptly returns to the Agnihotra and Uddalaka. Oldenberg states that the Upanayana discussion is likely an insertion into the older text. Scholars state that there is high likelihood of interpolation, insertion and corruption in dharma sutras and dharma sastra texts, and there are contradictory verses in it on Upanayana related rites of passage. Kane similarly states, in his History of Dharmasastra reviews, that there is high likelihood of interpolation, insertion and corruption in dharma sutras and dharma sastra texts on Upanayana related rite of passage. Patrick Olivelle notes the doubts in postmodern scholarship about the presumed reliability of Manusmriti manuscripts. He writes, Manusmriti was the first Indian legal text introduced to the western world through the translation of Sir William Jones in 1.
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